Trochulus

Communication: Luise Kruckenhauser (genetics), Michael Duda (morphology, anatomy, ecology)

Trochulus oreinos scheerpeltzi, an Austrian endemic with a very small distribution area, is restricted to high elevations.

The major aim of this project was to elucidate the phylogeography of the hairy snail Trochulus hispidus with emphasis on Alpine populations, to investigate the morphological variation within Austrian populations of T. hispidus including the ill-described and problematic taxon T. sericeus, and to revise the taxonomic state of the East-Alpine endemic Trochulus oreinos and its subspecies. Analyses of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 12S rRNA (12S) and 16S rRNA (16S) revealed nine distinct mitochondrial clades (showing p-distances up to 19% in COI), all of them comprising individuals with a T. hispidus phenotype. Moreover, T. hispidus appears paraphyletic in the phylogenetic tree with respect to several other morphologically well defined Trochulus species (T. clandestinus, T. villosus, T. villosulus and T. striolatus) which form well-supported monophyletic groups. The results of a parallel morphometric investigation did not reveal any differentiation between the nine T. hispidus clades.

Two congeners of T. hispidus were investigated in more detail: T. striolatus and T. oreinos. Concerning T. oreinos (formerly treated as a subspecies of T. hispidus) morphological investigations reconfirmed its status as a separate species characterized by some distinct diagnostic traits like differences in hair morphology. Furthermore, we identified several characters like shell measurements and structures that distinguish the two species by trend, although there are overlaps in some cases. The two geographically and genetically well separated subspecies of T. oreinos (oreinos and scheerpeltzi) show only weak morphological differentiation. Genetic analyses revealed the two T. oreinos subspecies as distantly related sister groups, clearly separated from T. hispidus. The deep divergences between the three taxa is also reflected in high divergences in nuclear marker sequences which implies that they represent old lineages. Differences are also found in habitat preferences: While T. oreinos is restricted to rocky high alpine areas, especially Carex firma meadows with patchy structures, T. hispidus is distributed over a wider altitudinal range in moist areas and scrubby perennial herb vegetation near water bodies. Within T. striolatus there is a slight morphological differentiation between the subspecies T. s. striolatus, T. s. juvavensis and T. s. danubialis, which are not clearly separated at the genetic level.

For more information on our phylogenetic, morphological, anatomical and ecological investigations and on presumed glacial refugia read our publications and see below. Our results were also presented at several scientific meetings.

Currently, potential gene flow between the two subspecies of T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi in their contact zone is analysed by Sonja Bamberger in the course of her master thesis (in collaboration with Andreas Tribsch, University of Salzburg). For this task she is utilizing AFLP markers. The results, together with all information gathered from our previous investigations, shall lead to a conclusive decision whether the two taxa should be elevated to species level.

Luise Kruckenhauser

Luise Kruckenhauser

Natural History Museum of Vienna, Central Research Laboratories

Michael Duda

Michael Duda

Natural History Museum of Vienna, Central Research Laboratories

Publications on Trochulus

Thesis

Duda, M. (2012). Trochulus oreinos (A.J. Wagner, 1915) and T. hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) in the eastern Alps and adjacent areas: Morphology, ecology and their context to phylogeography (Trochulus oreinos (A. J. Wagner, 1915) und T. hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) in den Ostalpen und angrenzenden Gebieten: Morphologie, Ökologie und ihr Kontext zur Phylogeographie) (Dissertation). University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Cite

Journal Articles

Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Sattmann, H., Harl, J., Jaksch, K., & Haring, E. (2014). Differentiation in the Trochulus hispidus complex and related taxa (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae): morphology, ecology and their relation to phylogeography. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 80(4), 371–387. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyu023 Cite
Duda, M., Sattmann, H., Haring, E., Bartel, D., Winkler, H., Harl, J., & Kruckenhauser, L. (2011). Genetic differentiation and shell morphology of Trochulus oreinos (Wagner, 1915) and T. hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) in the northeastern Alps. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77(1), 30–40. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyq037 Cite
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., & Sattmann, H. (2010). Habitat requirements of the pulmonate land snails Trochulus oreinos oreinos and Cylindrus obtusus endemic to the Northern Calcareous Alps. Austria.- eco.mont / Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research, 2, 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1553/eco.mont-2-2s5 Cite
Duda, M., Schindelar, J., Macek, O., Eschner, A., & Kruckenhauser, L. (2017). First record of Trochulus clandestinus (Hartmann, 1821) in Austria (Gastropoda: Eupulmonata: Hygromiidae). Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, 16, 37–43. Cite
Jaksch, K., Eschner, A., Rintelen, T. V., & Haring, E. (2016). DNA analysis of molluscs from a museum wet collection: a comparison of different extraction methods. BMC Research Notes, 9, 348. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-2147-7 Cite
Jaksch, K., Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., & Fehér, Z. (2017). First establishment of microsatellite markers in clausiliid snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clausiliidae). BMC Research Notes, 10, 137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2462-7 Cite
Kruckenhauser, L., Duda, M., Bartel, D., Sattmann, H., Harl, J., Kirchner, S., & Haring, E. (2014). Paraphyly and budding speciation in the hairy snail (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae). Zoologica Scripta, 43(3), 273–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12046 Cite

Abstracts

Bamberger, S., Tribsch, A., Duda, M., Macek, O., Affenzeller, M., Haring, E., … Kruckenhauser, L. (2017). One species or two? Testing gene flow between the subspecies of Trochulus oreinos (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). Presented at the 8th European Conference of Malacological societies, 10-14. September, Krakau, Polen, Kraków, Poland.
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., Harl, J., & Sattmann, H. (2010). The snail genus Trochulus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) as an example for morphological, genetic, and ecological differentiation of Alpine land snails. Oral presentation presented at the World Congress of Malacology, Phuket (Thailand).
Duda, M., Sattmann, H., Bartel, D., Haring, E., Harl, J., & Kruckenhauser, L. (2009). The genus Trochulus as an example for morphological, genetic, and ecological differentiation of Austrian Alpine Land snails. Oral presentation presented at the 3. Jahrestagung NOBIS Austria, Wien (Austria).
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., Harl, J., & Sattmann, H. (2009). Genetic differentiation and shell morphology of Trochulus oreinos oreinos (Wagner 1915), Trochulus oreinos scheerpeltzi (Mikula 1957) and Trochulus hispidus (Linné 1785) in the North-Eastern Alps. Poster presented at the 102nd Conference of the German Zoological Society, Regensburg (Germany).
Duda, M., Sattmann, H., Haring, E., & Kruckenhauser, L. (2012, December). Trochulus oreinos and T. hispidus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) in the Eastern Alps and adjacent areas: Morphology, ecology and their context to phylogeography. Talk presented at the 6. Jahrestagung NOBIS Austria, Klagenfurt, Austria.
Duda, M., Sattmann, H., Kruckenhauser, L., & Haring, E. (2011). Phylogeography and taxonomic state of Trochulus hispidus, Trochulus oreinos oreinos and Trochulus oreinos scheerpeltzi (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygomiidae) in the eastern Alps and adjacent areas. Talk presented at the Exkursionsworkshop Alpine Landschnecken, Johnsbach, Austria.
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Haring, E., Harl, J., & Sattmann, H. (2009). Morphologic and genetic differentiation of Trochulus oreinos oreinos (Wagner 1915), Trochulus oreinos scheerpeltzi (Mikula 1957) and Trochulus hispidus (Linné 1785) in the North-Eastern Alps. Poster presented at the 1st European BioSyst Meeting, Leiden (The Netherlands).
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Sattmann, H., Harl, J., & Haring, E. (2013). Different evolutionary histories in taxa: reasons and challenges A case study in Trochulus. Presented at the World Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal).
Duda, M., Kruckenhauser, L., Bartel, D., Harl, J., Sattmann, H., & Haring, E. (2013). Divergent mitochondrial clades of snails with a Trochulus hispidus phenotype How to confine a snail species? Presented at the World Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal).
Duda, M., Sattmann, H., Haring, E., & Kruckenhauser, L. (2013). New assessment for an old species: the Austrian endemic Trochulus oreinos (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae). Presented at the BioSyst EU 2013, Vienna, Austria.
Kruckenhauser, L., Bartel, D., Haring, E., Sattmann, H., Harl, J., & Duda, M. (2011). What is a snail species? Mitochondrial lineages of snails with a Trochulus hispidus phenotype. Talk presented at the Exkursionsworkshop Alpine Landschnecken, Johnsbach, Austria.
Kruckenhauser, L., Bartel, D., Haring, E., Sattmann, H., & Duda, M. (2011, June). What is a snail species? Mitochondrial lineages of snails with a Trochulus hispidus phenotype. Oral presentation presented at the 6th Congress of the European Malacological Societies (CEMS), Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain).
Kruckenhauser, L., Duda, M., Bartel, D., Harl, J., Sattmann, H., & Haring, E. (2013). Divergent mitochondrial clades of snails with a Trochulus hispidus phenotype. How to confine a snail species? Presented at the BioSyst EU 2013, Vienna, Austria.
Macek, O., Kruckenhauser, L., & Duda, M. (2014). Step across the border – do the two subspecies of T. oreinos hybridize? Presented at the Workshop Alpine Land Snails 2014, Johnsbach, Austria.

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